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  • Statics
    作者: other | 发布时间: 2020-11-01 19:46:16 | 点击量: 62
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    Homogeneity: All individuals have similar characteristics and belong to same category.

    Variation: the differences in height, weight...

    Sample : A reprensentative part of the population.


    Estimation of Probability - Frequency

        number of observation: n (large enough)

        number of occurrences of 


    Parameter: A meausre of certain property of the 

    population

    It is usually presented by Greek letters suck as 

    u , pai 

    Statistic: A measure of certain property of a sample


    The Basic Steps of Statistical Work

    1. Design of study

    2. Collection of data

    3. Data Sorting

    4. Data Analysis

    5. Reporting


    About Teaching and Learning


    Aim:

        Training statistical thinking

        Skill of dealing with medical data.

    Focus:

        Essential concetpsand statiscal thinking

        - lectures and practice session

        Skill on computer 


    Text book

    Fang Ji-Qian. Medical Statistics and Computer Experiments.

    Singapore: World Scienfic 2005


    Charpter 1 : Descriptive Statistics


    Statistics: Statistical description

        Statistical inference

        Statistical description:


    1.1 Variables and Data

    1.1.1 Structure and feature of data:

        Age is a variable.

    (1) Basic observed unit

        A patient is defned as an observed limit.


    (2) Recording item

        Group: treatment

        Response variables: systolic pressure, 

        Covariates: age and gender    

    Core variables: 


    1. Quantitative Variable

      Continuous variable

         Values of 

          Discrete variable

          Binary variable is a simplest speical of sets.

        2.Qualitative Variable

        Categorical variable: Taking "values" within several possible

        Ordinal variable: primary , high, university, postgraduate

            some rank, order


    1.2 Frequency Table & Histogram

        useful for description of sample data

        intuitive basement of 

        

        Table 1.3 the frequency table for occupation of 108 patients

        Categories of occupation 

        Frequency

        Relative frequency(%)

        Cumulative frequency

        Cumulative relative frequency


        Table 1.4 the frequencty talbe ofr the results of certain semi-quantitative est among 150 patients

    categories frequency relative frequency cumulatve frequency cumulative relative frequency


    2.continuous type frequency table

    (1) Range R: maximum = 6.18, minimum = 3.29

    (2) Length of sub-intervals i

        Divide the whole range into 8-15 sub-intervals.

        R/10=2.89/10=0.3


    1.2.2 Frequency plot and histogram

        1. Frequency plot of

        2. Frequency plot for continuous variable - histogram

     

    1.3 skew or skewness 偏峰

        old people have more chances to have cancer.

        long tail to the possitive 

        possitive skew and negitive skew

        






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